William H. Dutton
William H. Dutton is the Quello Professor of Media and Information at MSU, where he directs the Quello Center. Bill’s research is focused on Internet Studies, and the elaboration of his conception of ‘The Fifth Estate‘ of the Internet realm, which has generated new research projects and a book in progress. Prior to arriving at MSU, Bill was the Professor of Internet Studies, University of Oxford, where he was the Founding Director of the Oxford Internet Institute (OII), and Fellow of Balliol College. Before coming to Oxford in 2002, he was a Professor in the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California, where he remains an Emeritus Professor. In the UK, he was a Fulbright Scholar 1986-87, and was National Director of the UK’s Programme on Information and Communication Technologies (PICT) from 1993 to 1996.
Sunday, August 13th, 2017
James H. Quello
A Biographical and Historical Note
Compiled by Lauren Lincoln-Chavez for the James Quello Archive
James Henry Quello (April 21,1914-January 24, 2010) was born in Larium, Michigan, a northern Italian copper mining colony. In the 1920’s, the Quello family relocated to Detroit, where Quello’s father opened a grocery store in Highland Park, later working for Ford Motor Company as a factory worker and foreman. In a neighborhood dominated by the Klu Klux Klan, James H. Quello experienced discrimination and racial violence due to his Italian-American heritage. He describes his early years as where he “start[ed] becoming a strong believer in self-defense in school and in life.” After prohibition was repealed, the Quello family returned to Larium, opening a thriving saloon across from the police station.
As a college student at Michigan State University, Quello served in the ROTC and pursued journalism with the intention of becoming a newspaperman. He worked multiple positions for MSU’s college newspaper, including columnist and editor, and served as a newscaster on WKAR; a 500-watt college radio station. He graduated with a Bachelors of Art from the College of Arts and Letters in 1935 and was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humanities degree in 1977 from Michigan State University. In 1975, he received an honorary Doctor of Public Service from Northern Michigan University.
A World War II hero, James H. Quello served as a Lieutenant and Lieutenant Colonel, earning several commendations for his service. He survived amphibious landings in Africa, Sicily, Italy, and France, and assault crossings on the Rhine and Danube in Germany. In addition to serving as Lieutenant of the infantry, Quello was paid to write articles for service papers. At the summons of Lieutenant Colonel Sandlin, he witnessed the horrors of the Dachau concentration camp before it was deemed off limits. At the end of the war, Quello was assigned to Camp Blanding, Florida, to train an infantry battalion in preparation for Japan.
In July 1945, James H. Quello began his position as Publicity Director for the Lone Ranger and Green Hornet at the WXYZ-AM Detroit station, where he became the personal liaison between Bing Crosby and the ABC radio network. After WXYZ-AM station was purchased by the ABC network Quello took a position as General Manager at WJR-AM, the dominant 50,000-watt clear channel station. Later, he was promoted to Vice President, where his broadcast executive leadership was distinguished by a doubling in WJR (FM)’s power, the implementation of affirmative action policies, and the placement of J.P. McCarthy in a key drive-time spot; where he was the highest rated morning man for 28 years. Under Quello’s leadership, WJR was awarded numerous awards and citations.
During his tenure, WJR implemented affirmative action policies; hiring the first black Disc Jockey, Bill Lane, in 1949. Quello was the architect of “complete range programming,” featuring minority and adult programming. WJR was the only station to feature a 16-piece orchestra and choir training program for high performing high school students, “Make Way for Youth.” Amongst the graduates were prominent black choral members Freda Payne and Ursula Walker. WJR served as the leader in coordinating with national news networks during Detroit’s 1967 rebellion, providing comprehensive local and national coverage. Quello also wrote articles for fourteen community newspapers, titled “Radiograms” by Jim Henry, and was a Detroit stringer for Variety magazine.
James H. Quello had extensive involvement in the Michigan Association of Broadcasting (MAB), where he served as president and government relations chairman. He was appointed by four different Mayors to serve as a member of the Detroit Housing and Urban Renewal Commission for a total of 21 years, where he advocated for open occupancy and low-cost housing for minorities. He also served as a trustee on the Michigan Veterans Trust Fund for 22 years, where he was appointed by four different Governors, and facilitated innovative initiatives. Quello’s broadcasting career provided a practical foundation for his career as an FCC Commissioner and Chairman (1993).
Federal Communications Commission
James H. Quello’s 24-year career as an FCC Commissioner, 1974-1998, was greatly influential, assisting the FCC in ushering in revolutionary technological changes during a global cultural shift in media and communications. His advocacy for communication and broadcasting policies brought new telecommunications options to the American public through the development of cable and satellite TV, high-definition digital broadcasts, and personal communications services. Quello’s regulatory philosophy was guided by a desire to create flexible policies to accommodate quickly changing technologies, as the world began to expand through economic and political initiatives into new territories, technologies, and cultures.
Known for the longest and shortest confirmation hearing, 8 days and 15 minutes, respectively, James H. Quello was first appointed as an FCC Commissioner in 1974 by President Richard Nixon on the recommendation of the Vice President, Gerald Ford, who built his political career representing Michigan in the House of Representatives until 1973. Despite Quello’s bipartisan support, his appointment was heavily contested by Ralph Nader, who viewed Quello as a pawn of the radio and broadcasting industry. Throughout his career as an FCC Commissioner, James H. Quello advocated for equal opportunity; minority ownership; affirmative action policies; free universal television; and deregulation; taking a strong position against sex and violence in television broadcasting, and financial interest and syndication rules. He heavily pursued the fining of shock-jock Howard Stern for anti-indecency rule violations.
Commissioner Quello was a champion for public broadcasting; committed to free over-the-air broadcasting, deregulation, and limiting violence in television broadcasting. He assisted with the modernization of broadcasting transmission systems, bringing HDTV into the modern age with minimal government oversight. A strong proponent of must-carry rules and retransmission consent, he believed these regulations would be beneficial for broadcasters and viewers. Commissioner Quello served as Chair of the TCAF committee, providing assistance to public broadcasting stations seeking financial stability. In the final year of his career as an FCC Commissioner, James H. Quello worked on the 1996 Communications Act, enabling cross-ownership between telecommunications companies; designed to foster marketplace competition, but which was followed by greater concentration of media ownership.
As a supporter of freedom of speech and First Amendment rights, Commissioner Quello supported the deregulation of commercial limitations in television broadcasting (1981). He adamantly argued against the imposition of three hours of educational programming in children’s television programming, contending that educational programming regulations would impose on First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech, and quantitative regulations would be difficult to uphold in court. He later reversed his position in 1996, after outraged demands from congressmen and senators.
During his career as a Commissioner, the FCC initiated affirmative action policies utilizing rigorous standards of equal opportunity employment to increase minority hiring and ownership in broadcasting. Licensees were required to understand the community they served and make efforts to recruit employees represented in the community. In 1977, the Commission adopted affirmative action policies for the review guidelines for EEO license renewal, requiring an in-depth staff review for stations with six to ten full-time employees and no minority or female employees. In 1980, the Commission tightened the EEO review policy, increasing the standards for equal opportunity employment in the broadcasting industry; imposing sanctions on broadcast stations that did not provide opportunities to minorities.
James H. Quello was a consistent advocate for the review of ownership rules. He was the first FCC commissioner to demonstrate support for minority ownership, advocating for affirmative financing policies in commercial broadcasting station ownership. Commissioner Quello also pushed for distress sales to minorities at 75% of appraisal value versus license revocation and for tax certificates with tax breaks for minorities. Clear Channel Communications was the first network to sell a broadcasting station to minority owners, as they were forced to divest due to ownership limitations imposed by the FCC. Commissioner Quello supported improvements to UHF broadcasting to facilitate the development of local public broadcasting initiatives and minority ownership.
Personal Communication Services
Considered the “Father” of Personal Communication Services (PCS), Quello’s initiative helped spurr the development of the cellular industry. Quello served on a commission, which established the regulatory framework for PCS; developing the band plan and regulatory scheme for private land mobile devices. Quello’s staff advocated for a regulatory framework of the Low Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOS), that made mobile communications globally feasible. Commissioner Quello ushered in a vision of global communication networks.
In 1993, James H. Quello was appointed Acting Chairman by President Bill Clinton, during which the FCC Commission implemented the Cable Act; imposing rate regulations on cable television broadcasting and lifting long-standing restrictions on television networks from entering the market for reruns and syndication. Congress granted the FCC auction authority, raising over $20 billion for the U.S treasury. Additionally, the FCC cleared the way for new wireless phone and two-way data services, expanding opportunities for personal communications services globally. His tenure as Acting Chairman was lauded as a period of transparency and collaboration.
Michigan State University
In 1998, James H. Quello assisted James Spaniolo, Dean of the College of Communication Arts and Sciences, in the development of the James H. and Mary B. Quello Center for Telecommunication Management and Law at Michigan State University, as a multi-disciplinary center within the Department of Media and Information. The Quello Center’s original mission was to support social research of changing communication technologies, industries, and consumer choices through rigorous interdisciplinary research initiatives, global professional opportunities to facilitate cross-disciplinary dialogues, participation in communication policy developments, and expertise and independent research for public and nonprofit institutions. This mission remains central to the Quello Center moving into the digital age. Quello played a major role in the development of the Quello Center, helping to generate over 200 gifts for the Center through a general endowment that has grown to $5 million by 2017. James H. Quello died on January 24, 2010, at the age of 95, in his home in Alexandria, Virginia.
Thursday, August 10th, 2017
Our Quello Research Fellow, Professor Keith N. Hampton, a Professor in the Department of Media & Information in MSU’s College of Communication Arts & Sciences, has received a prestigious award from the Sociological Research Association (SRA) in being elected as a new member. The SRA is an honor society that elects up to only 14 new members a year, based on their excellence in research. As the officers of SRA noted: “SRA election signifies the esteem of your colleagues in the profession and their enthusiasm for your scholarship.”
Professor Hampton joined MSU last year and has already been incredibly active in developing new grant proposals, and continuing his stream of academic publications around use of the Internet in shaping many dimensions of community. He is presently involved with the Quello Center’s research on digital divides and social capital in Detroit, and an ambitious proposal on the future of the Internet and community enabled by next generation broadcast standards.
Our congratulations and thanks to Keith for enhancing the stature of the Center, Department, and College of Communication Arts & Sciences at MSU. It goes without saying that his colleagues share the SRA’s enthusiasm for his scholarship, and particularly his presence and impact on our students, faculty and many colleagues.
Monday, July 31st, 2017
We are delighted that her work on the Advisory Board of the Quello Center will continue to work with the Quello Center’s Advisory Board. Given the Center’s work on projects like ICT4Detroit, we can see her new role providing a continuing stream of useful perspectives and advice for the Center.
Tuesday, July 18th, 2017
The social and economic potential of a global Internet — one that bridges the world — is widely recognized. The potential for using the Internet to reconfigure access to information and knowledge, and also reshape freedom of expression, privacy, and ethical norms and behaviour, has been a theme in academic research, but also has been recognized by the Member States of UNESCO, who were broadly consulted in the development of a recent report, entitled ‘Keystones to Foster Inclusive Knowledge Societies’.* Professor Dutton, who helped UNESCO draft this report, will provide a brief overview of the major themes and challenges of this report as a means to open a discussion of how an open, global and secure Internet might bridge the four corners of the world in ways that enable access to information and knowledge, freedom of expression, privacy, and respect for the diversity of ethical concerns in local and global communities.
*The UNESCO report is available online at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/internetstudy/
Tuesday, July 18th, 2017
Bill Dutton work with UNESCO staff to draft a document for their Connecting the Dots conference, which was entitled ‘Keystones to Foster Inclusive Knowledge Societies‘. It is available online at:
The report was one of the first projects Bill undertook in 2014, when he joined MSU as Director of the Quello Center. Last week, while presenting his work on search and politics at UNESCO, dealing with echo chambers and filter bubbles, he was pleased to hear that the keystones report is now available in eight languages, most recently in Russian, and is continuing to be useful for UNESCO’s discussions of basic principles for guiding policy and practice around the Internet in shaping society.
Monday, July 17th, 2017
Bill Dutton had a productive and challenging week in Europe speaking about the Quello Center’s work on search and politics. The findings of our project, called ‘The Part Played by Search in Shaping Public Opinion’, suggested that concerns over fake news, echo chambers, and filter bubbles is ‘overhyped and underresearched’. The project was supported by Google, and the findings and methodology are publicly available online (see references), along with the slides I adapted for each of the particular talks. The slides are posted here: https://www.slideshare.net/WHDutton/search-and-politics-fake-news-echo-chambers-and-filter-bubbles-july2017
In Paris, on the 10th and 11th, Bill was able to speak at a UNESCO Knowledge Café for a seminar chaired by the Director for Freedom of Expression and Media Development, Guy Berger, for UNESCO staff, which included UNESCO’s Xianhong Hu. He then met with members of the French Audio Visual Regulator, the Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel (CSA); and then members of the Ministère de la Culture (Ministry of Culture); and gave a lecture at Sciences Po, which was jointly organized by Thierry Vedel for the MediaLab and CEVIPOF. Bill was also able to meet over lunch with a former colleague in the President’s office at the French National Commission on Informatics and Liberty (CNIL), which is central to data protection in France.
On the 12th, Bill was in Rome, where he first spoke at a roundtable over a wonderful lunch at the Centro Studi Americani – the Center for American Studies. That evening, he spoke on the Terrazza dei Cesari with members of YouTrend, an organization of political communicators in Italy, which was picked up by over a thousand on a Facebook Live video stream. The talk was sandwiched by an aperitif and dinner, and sequentially translated.
His last stop was in Berlin, where Bill was able to meet at the Ministry for Culture with representatives of the state media authorities, representing the German Lander governments. He finished his talks with a roundtable at the Alexander von Humboldt Institute für Internet und Gesellschaft (HIIG – Germany’s first Internet Institute), chaired by Professor Dr. Wolfgang Schulz and joined by Professor Dr. Dr. Ingolf Pernice. Bill is a member of HIIG’s Advisory Committee, and noted how great it was to end his trip with a sense of the quality and diversity of faculty, fellows and visitors at the Institute.
This week was an incredible outreach opportunity for the Quello Center to convey the results of our research. The Center wants to thank all of those who helped organize and attended these events; thank all the faculty on the project, including Grant Blank, Elizabeth Dubois, and Bibi Reisdorf, in addition to Bill, as well as our graduate assistants, Sabrina Ahmed and Craig Robertson; and thank our colleagues at Google for their confidence in the Quello Search Project.
Dutton, W. H. Talking Points that Formed the Basis for the Talks in Europe: https://www.slideshare.net/WHDutton/search-and-politics-fake-news-echo-chambers-and-filter-bubbles-july2017
Dutton, W.H., Reisdorf, B.C., Dubois, E., and Blank, G. (2017), Search and Politics: The Uses and Impacts of Search in Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the United States, Quello Center Working Paper available on SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2960697
Dutton, W.H. (2017), ‘Fake News, Echo Chambers, and Filter Bubbles: Underresearched and Overhyped’: https://theconversation.com/fake-news-echo-chambers-and-filter-bubbles-underresearched-and-overhyped-76688
Dutton, W. H. (2017), ‘Bubblebusters’, NESTA. http://readie.eu/bubblebusters-countering-fake-news-filter-bubbles-and-echo-chambers/
Thursday, June 1st, 2017
Charles Villanueva manages a “gigantic Cybersecurity Conference Directory which lists nearly a thousand events” – and this is truly incredible. So if you feel you can’t keep up with all the conferences, you are probably not alone. His URL is https://infosec-conferences.com/
The Quello Center is involved in a number of cybersecurity projects, including Oxford Martin’s Global Cyber Security Capacity Building Center at the University of Oxford. See: http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/cybersecurity
Tuesday, May 23rd, 2017
A good interview with Tom Hazlett concerning his book, entitled Political Spectrum.
Friday, May 5th, 2017
I was honored to take part in a celebration of the many endowed faculty at MSU. From the College of Communication Arts and Sciences #comartsci, a medallion was given to me – Bill Dutton – as the James H. and Mary B. Quello Professor of Media and Information Policy, in the Department of Media and Information, and John C. Besley, the Ellis N. Brandt Chair in Public Relations, and noted among many other things for his work on public attitudes toward science and scientists. Dean Prabu David was on hand to congratulate us.
My major take away from this event is the need and value for the College #comartsci to attract more endowed professorships. They are indeed one way to attract faculty to the university and a terrific way to recognize alumni and others who give to the university. The best news of the event was a reminder that MSU was named at one of the world’s 50 powerhouse universities – so much potential for colleagues to fulfill in the coming years.
Tuesday, May 2nd, 2017
As a new faculty member, arriving just three years ago, I learned a lot at the retirement party that the Department of Media and Information put on for Bob Albers, who was with the department for 35 years – maybe more. He was the first and founding director of what is called the Media Sandbox, which has attracted undergraduates across the university who want to learn the basics of media production.
All the art of media production went into his retirement party on May 1st. It was held in Studio A of the WKAR Studios, which are in the College of Communication Arts and Sciences, as is the Media and Information Department. The party seemed to have been produced by the new director of the Sandbox, Karl Gude, who did a brilliant job mixing people, stories, and media into a major tribute for Bob. It was funny, informative, and touching, even for those like me who are new to the College and Department.
Congratulations to all who spoke and were involved in this production. In addition to Karl, these included Prabu David (Dean of College of Communication Arts and Sciences), Johannes Bauer, Gary Reid, Susi Elkins (General Manager of WKAR), Jeff Wray (College of Arts and Letters, who taught with Bob), Valeta Winsloff (mixed media from the back of the room at the Wizard of Oz media controller), Elise Conklin (one of Bob’s students who recently won a medal for the documentary “From Flint” at the 43rd Annual Student Academy Awards), and many many more.
Way to practice what you teach, my friends and colleagues, and thank you, Bob.