Bob Pepper is a Communications Program Fellow at the Aspen Institute. He received his BA. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. and held faculty positions at the University of Iowa, Indiana University, and University of Pennsylvania, and was a research affiliate at Harvard University. Following this he was Director of the Annenberg Washington Program in Communications Policy. He was subsequently Chief of the Office of Plans and Policy and Chief of Policy Development at the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an office now known as OSP. He has also been Acting Associate Administrator at the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and initiator of a program on Computers, Communications and Information Policy at the National Science Foundation. Prior to his appointment as a Fellow of the Aspen Institute, Bob was Vice President for Global Technology Policy at Cisco, having joined the company in 2005. He was responsible for the international aspects of the company’s advanced technology policy, working in areas such as broadband, IP enabled services, wireless, security and privacy and ICT development. In addition, he serves on a number of boards, including the the board of directors of the U.S. Telecommunications Training Institute (USTTI) and the advisory board for Columbia University as well as the Quello Center’s Advisory Board.